Sunday, January 25, 2015

How to learn to Move-On

When relationship blossoms it creates memory that keeps you happy, but not all relationships last long some break us ,wear us out and even makes us vexed of living.This article is special for those people who want to move on.

Rule 1: Never go back to someone who break you.

Yeah,right people most of the time do this mistake, sometimes you get a chance to see you guy or girl but most of the will least respect you ,even worst you can find them hanging with someone else they might even treat you bad.You don't need this so never ever go see them.

Rule 2: Move out of things that remind You about your Ex

They maybe gifts ,pictures , anything that reminds you of them you make think that it may bring good memories but it wont help you in way but will make you down so dispose all of it or move it to store room.

Rule 3: Cry over it and burst your feelings out

Bring out all your emotions you have try to get control over it.It Maybe difficult task but you have to do.See in mirror talk with yourself ,tell yourself that  “THERE IS SOMEONE SPECIAL WAITING FOR YOU ” Tell yourself they aren't worth it!

Rule 4:Don't dump yourself in Bad Habits

There is say “No one can help yourself then that of yourself”.If you start drinking or do drugs it wont help you instead join in some classes such as Yoga or go Jog or workout in someway even playing some sports will lift up your mood.Its believed that exercise can improve your mood.

Rule 5: Talk with your friends

There is always a residue of your relationship left in your heart always you can share with most trusted friends you have they will surely be able to help you out.Spend time with them hangout go party or go for movie.

Rule 6: Focus on yourself

Change yourself, make over change yourself change your hair style ,the way you look dress smartly everything of this will make you feel better and become more confident about yourself.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

10 Deadly Weapons found in Hindu Mythology

Hindu mythology is made out of numerous traditional narrative in which the most famous of them are Ramanya , the Mahabharata and the Tamil sangam .In all of these narrations its explains about the Gods,Devans, Demon,Sages,Kingdoms and Wars .Right now we are going to talk more on top 10 War Weaponry(Astra) used by the Gods and Devans used to defeat the Demons or Evil force and these weaponries(Astra)  can cause of Annihilation of the enemies and they description  in the ancient scripts tell us that they are extremely dangerous and some of them can be used once in a person's life time.


1.Sudarshana Chakra


Its a spinning disc with 108 serrated edges seen in the hands of Lord vishnu.This was the Gift from Lord Shiva to Lord Vishnu and its been said to be made by architect of gods, Vishvakarma.It was made out of the Sun dust , scraps took from the Trident of Shiva .Sudarshana Chakra is considered to be the most powerful weapon in Hindu mythology.When it pursued sage Durvasa,neither Lord Brahama nor Lord Shiva could stop it.Sudarshana Chakra was used to cut the corpse of Sati, the consort of Shiva into 51 pieces after she gave up her life by throwing herself in a yagna (fire sacrifice) of her father Daksha. It is said that Shiva, in grief, carried around her lifeless body and was inconsolable. The 51 parts of the goddess' body were then tossed about in different parts of the Indian subcontinent and came to be known as "Shakti Peethas".




Trishula is simply a trident which in the hands of the lord Shiva or goddess Shakthi .Unlike the Poisedan’s Trident where it can only controls oceans , A Trishula has way more powerful features lord Shiva has used it to destroy  many numbers of demon we can possibly imagine of and control anything.A Trishula  can nullify any supernatural weapons and once used it can never be stopped or controlled unless its Stopped by the Lord Shiva himself .Its said of beheaded lord Ganesha who is the most powerful diety of Hindu mythology . Lord Ganesha was put back together by Lord Shiva himself




This the one of the most deadliest weapon ever known to man kind  next to Trishula  .Its said that this weapon must never to be used against lesser enemies or by lesser warriors, the Pashupatastra is capable of destroying creation and vanquishing all beings.In the Mahabharata Arjuna obtained this weapon from Lord Shiva but did not use it because this weapon would destroy the entire world, if used against a mortal enemy. Arjun didn't used this astra to slay Jayadaratha. It is said that the mantra to obtain and discharge the astra is sealed by Shiva to prevent its misuse in the Kali Yuga. It is said that no one in the three worlds can resist lord Shiva when he shows his prowess.Apart from Arjun,no other warrior possessed this weapon.When released, the weapon summons several monsters and a huge spirit which personifies the weapon. Sometimes it can cause a catastrophic explosion similar to a hydrogen bomb. Each time the weapon is summoned, its head is never the same This weapon had to be obtained from Shiva directly. Infallible, though can be nullified only by any other Astra of Lord Shiva or by an Astra of Lord Vishnu.



Its described as a mythical equivalent of modern day atomic weapons, nuclear and thermonuclear bombs.

Its described in the Mahabharata, is a weapon which is said to be a single projectile charged with all the power of the universe. It is considered equivalent to modern day atom bomb. In Hindu Puranas after a Brahmastra is used it looks more of the nuclear fallout similarly to that of Hiroshima, the event is described as “An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as ten thousand suns rose in all its splendour: it was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas the corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. Their hair and nails fell out; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white. After a few hours all foodstuffs were infected…to escape from this fire the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment.” This weapon was used by Arjun in Kurukshetra war and was said to be neutralised by Karna.This weapon can be obtained only through Lord Brahma or  from a Guru who knows it and it could only be used once in a day. The user would have to display immense amounts of mental concentration.



Brahmashirsha astra is the evolution of the Brahmadanda , 4 times stronger than the Brahmadanda . It is similar to modern day hydrogen bombs or thermonuclear (fusion) bombs. In the Mahabharata, it is said that the weapon would manifest with the four heads of Lord Brahma as its tip. This astra can be invoked by using sacred mantras onto any object, even to a blade of grass.

In the Mahabharata, it is explained that when this weapon is invoked "it blazes up with terrible flames within a huge sphere of fire. Numerous peals of thunder were heard; thousands of meteors fell; and all living creatures became filled with great dread. The entire welkin seemed to be filled with noise and assumed a terrible aspect with those flames of fire. The whole earth with her mountains and waters and trees, trembled." When it strikes an area it will cause complete destruction and nothing will grow, not even a blade of grass for next 12 years. It will not rain for 12 years in that area and everything including metal or earth would be poisoned.


Its the most personal weapon of lord Vishnu it turn fires a powerful tirade of millions of deadly missiles simultaneously. The intensity of the shower increases with increase in resistance. The only way of defense towards this missile, is to show total submission before the missiles hit. This in turn will cause this weapon to stop and spare the target.Ashwathama,uses this weapons against the Panadavas in the battle of Kurukshetra to escape from this warriors need to drop their weapons and lie down on the ground, so that they all surrender completely to the power of the weapon. It was also said that this weapon can be used only once in a war and if one tries to use it twice, then it would devour the user's own army.


Parsurama is owner of this astra and he provided this powerful weapon to Karna.This astra possesses Parashurama's skill in archery. Infallible. It brings a shower of much more powerful weapons than the Indrastra and could cause total destruction of a planet if not retracted.Even though Arjuna claimed Bhargava Weapon couldnt be baffled,yet Arjuna had managed to neutralise Karna's Bhargava weapon by his own Brahmastra.This happened in section 89 of Karna Parva.Arjuna launched Brahmastra on Karna's Bhargavastra after waiting for a long time since Brahmastra could only be used if other weapons fails to nullify the opponent's weapon.If Bhargava weapon was not neutralised,it would have consumed the entire Pandava Army but thanks to Arjuna's Brahmastra,it didnt happen.



Vajrayudha is  more like the Hammer of Thor that is said to set struck with bolts of lightning on the enemies on the larger scales and this  weapon made from the bone of sage Dadhichi.  According to myth, Indra, the king of the deva was once driven out of devaloka (Heaven)by an asura named Vritra. The asura was the recipient of a boon whereby he could not be killed by any weapon that was known till the date of his receiving the boon and additionally that no weapon made of wood or metal could harm him .So this asura (Demon) steals all the water of the world and leaves the entire planet to die in thrist .Indra seeks the help of lord vishnu and Vishnu revealed to Indra that only the weapon made from the bones of the sage Dadhichi would defeat Vritra. Dadhichi is then said to have given up his life by the art of yoga after which the gods fashioned the vajrayudha from his spine .



Tvaṣṭṛ is a solar deity in the epic of Mahabharata and the Harivaṃsa. He is mentioned as the son of Kasyapa and Aditi, and is said to have made the three worlds with pieces of the Sun god Surya.When used against a group of opponents (such as an army), would cause them to mistake each other for enemies and fight each other.


Devastra is another name for Divyastra which means a divine weapon.Agneya Astra is connected to the Fire God Agni,it may be similar to a packet of inflammatory material that is attached to the tip of an arrow. 2. Varunastra is connect to the rain God Varuna,may be a packet of water that can drench the fire of the above astra 3. Vayavya Astra is connected to the Air God Vayu, it may be a packet of compressed air that will spread the fire created by the Agneya stra .

Monday, January 19, 2015

Tri-Colored Lakes of Kelimutu , Indonesia


Kelimutu is a volcano, close to the small town of Moni in central Flores island in Indonesia. The volcano is around 50 km to the east of Ende, Indonesia, the capital of Ende regency in East Nusa Tenggara province.

In the early days of developing the local national park in the Kelimutu area, there were some disputes with local communities over the use of the resources. More recently, forest rangers have worked to develop better relations with nearby village communities and overall management has improved.

kelimutu Indonesia volcanic Lakes three colours 2

Kelimutu is one of the mountains listed as a ribu in Indonesia which are mountains in Indonesia which are more than 1,000 meters high.

kelimutu Indonesia volcanic Lakes three colours 3

The area is said to have begun to attract attention after being noticed by a regional Dutch military commander, B. van Suchtelen in 1915 and became more well-known after Y. Bouman wrote about the site in 1929.

kelimutu Indonesia volcanic Lakes three colours 12

The closest airports are Maumere, and Ende. There are regular flights to Ende from Bali. The drive from Ende to Moni, the town at the base of Kelimutu where accommodation is available, takes about 3 hours, while from Moni to Kelimutu vehicle park, a 13 kilometers needs 45 minutes.Usually tourists sleep one night to catch sunrise at Kelimutu.



World’s Oldest University Nalanda

Nalanda was an acclaimed Mahāvihāra, a large Buddhist monastery in ancient Magadha (modern-day Bihar), India. The site is located about 95 kilometres southeast of Patna, and was a centre of learning from the fifth century CE to c. 1200 CE. Historians often characterize Nalanda as a university.


Nalanda flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire as well as emperors like Harsha and later, the rulers of the Pala Empire. At its peak, the school attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet, China, Korea, and Central Asia. It was ransacked and destroyed by an army of the Muslim Mamluk Dynasty under Bakhtiyar Khilji in c. 1200 CE


History of Nalanda goes back to the days of Mahavira and Buddha in the 6th Century B.C. It was the place of birth and nirvana of Sariputta, one of the most famous disciples of Buddha. But the place rose into prominence in 5th Century A.D. as a great monastic-cum-educational institution for oriental art and learning in the whole Buddhist world attracting students form distant countries including Hiuen Tsiang and I-Tsing from China. Various subjects like theology, grammar, logic, astronomy, metaphysics and philosophy were taught here. The institution was maintained by the revenue collected from the villages bestowed specifically for the purpose by the contemporary rulers as evident from inscriptions.


Nalanda Mahavihara, regarded as one of the greatest universities of ancient world, was founded by Kumaragupta I (413-455 A.D.) of the great Gupta dynasty. King Harshavardhana of Kannauj (606-647A.D.) and the Pala kings of east India (8th-12th Century A.D.) continued to extend patronage to this centre. The decline of this great institution started in later Pala period but the final blow came in around 1200 A.D. by the invasion of Bakhtiyar Khalji who destroyed it by fire and the glory of Nalanda thus got burried under the soil.


Excavations conducted by Archaeological Survey of India during 1915-37 and 1974-82 have exposed the extensive remains of six major brick temples and eleven monasteries arranged on a systematic layout and spread over an area of more than a square kilometre. Basically a hundred feet wide passage runs north-south with the row of temples on the west and that of the monasteries on the east of it.


The monasteries are quite identical in general layout and appearance. Central courtyard, row of cells all around with a common verandah, a secret chamber for keeping valuables, staircase for going to upper stories, kitchen, well, granary, single entrance and common place for prayer or meeting etc. are some characteristic features of almost all the monasteries at Nalanda. The main temple site 3 is the largest and most imposing structure at southern extremity of the row of temples and is surrounded by votive stupas. Originally it had four corner towers out of which two are in existence and decorated with rows of niches containing beautiful stucco images of Buddha and Bodhisattvas which are fine specimens of Gupta art. A temple different in character and not conforming to the general lay-out of the remains is represented by temple site 2. The interesting feature of this temple is the dado of two hundred and eleven sculptured panels over the moulded plinth. Another mound called 'Sarai Tila' very close to the monastery complex has revealed ruins of a temple with murals and feet portion of a colossal stucco image of Lord Buddha.


Other than structures, the excavations have unearthed many sculptures and images in stone, bronze and stucco. Significant among the Buddhist sculptures are Buddha in different postures, Avalokitesvara, Manjusri, Tara, Prajnaparamita, Marichi, Jambhala etc and a few images are of Brahmanical deities like Vishnu, Siva-Parvati, Mahishasura-mardini, Ganesa, Surya etc. Other noteworthy discoveries of excavations include the murals, copper plates, inscriptions, sealings, plaques, coins, terracottas, potteries etc. The antiquities have been exhibited for the visitors in the site museum maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India






Seven Coloured Earths , Mauritius

The Seven Coloured Earth are a geological formation and prominent tourist attraction found in the Chamarel plain of the Rivière Noire District in south-western Mauritius. It is a relatively small area ofsand dunes comprising sand of seven distinct colours (approximately red, brown, violet, green, blue, purple and yellow). The main feature of the place is that since these differently coloured sands spontaneously settle in different layers, dunes acquire a surrealistic, striped colouring. This phenomenon can also be observed, on a smaller scale, if one takes a handful of sands of different colours and mixes them together, as they'll eventually separate into a layered spectrum. Another interesting feature of Chamarel's Coloured Earths is that the dunes seemingly never erode, in spite of Mauritius' torrential, tropical rains.






Sunday, January 18, 2015

Evolution Of Clocks

For thousands of years, devices have been used to measure and keep track of time. The current sexagesimal system of time measurement dates to approximately 2000 BC, in Sumer. The Ancient Egyptians divided the day into two 12-hour periods, and used large obelisks to track the movement of the Sun.

Sun Clocks

With the disappearance of any ancient civilisation, such as the Sumerian culture, knowledge is also lost. Whilst we can but hypothesise on the reasons of why the equivalent to the modern wristwatch was never completed, we know that the ancient Egyptians were next to layout a system of dividing the day into parts, similar to hours.


'Obelisks' (tall four-sided tapered monuments) were carefully constructed and even purposefully geographically located we believe around 3500 BC. A shadow was cast as the Sun moved across the sky by the obelisk, which it appears was then marked out in sections, allowing people to clearly see the two halves of the day. Some of the sections have also been found to indicate the 'year's longest and shortest days', which it is thought were developments added later to allow identification of other important time subdivisions.


Another ancient Egyptian 'shadow clock' or 'sundial' has been discovered to have been in use around 1500 BC, which allowed the measuring of the passage of 'hours'. The sections were divided into ten parts, with two 'twilight hours' indicated, occurring in the morning and the evening. For it to work successfully then at midday or noon, the device had to be turned 180 degrees to measure the afternoon hours.

The Egyptians also used the 'Merkhet', the oldest known astronomical tool, which is believed to have been developed around 600 BC. Two merkhets were used to establish a north-south line which was achieved by lining them up with the 'Pole Star'. This enabled the measurement of night-time hours, when certain stars crossed the marked meridian. By 30 BC, 'Vitruvius' describes thirteen different sundial styles being used across Greece, Asia Minor, and Italy, inherently demonstrating how the development must have grown to be more complex.

Water Clocks

'Water clocks' were among the earliest time keeping devices that didn't use the observation of the celestial bodies to calculate the passage of time. The ancient Greeks, it is believed, began using water clocks around 325 BC. Most of these clocks were used to determine the hours of the night, but may have also been used during daylight. An inherent problem with the water clock was that they were not totally accurate, as the system of measurement was based on the flow of water either into, or out of, a container which had markers around the sides. Another very similar form was that of a bowl that sank during a period as it was filled of water from a regulated flow. It is known that water clocks were common across the Middle East, and that these were still being used in North Africa during the early part of the twentieth-century.


In the Far East, mechanised 'astronomical' and 'astrological' clock-making is known to have developed between 200-1300 AD. In 1088 AD, 'Su Sung' and his colleagues designed and constructed a highly complex mechanism that incorporated a water-driven escapement, invented about 725 AD. It was over seven metres in height and had all manor of mechanisms running simultaneously. During each hour an observer could view the movement of a power-driven armillary sphere, constructed of bronze rings, an automatically rotating celestial globe, together with five doors that allowed an enticing glimpse of seeing individual statues, all of which rang bells, banged gongs or held inscribed tablets showing the hour or a special time of the day. The appearance and actions would have appeared similar to the automaton we know so well today.

Candle clocks
The earliest mention of candle clocks comes from a Chinese poem, written in 520 by You Jianfu. According to the poem, the graduated candle was a means of determining time at night. Similar candles were used in Japan until the early 10th century.


The candle clock most commonly mentioned and written of is attributed to King Alfred the Great. It consisted of six candles made from 72 pennyweights of wax, each 12 inches (30 cm) high, and of uniform thickness, marked every inch (2.54 cm). As these candles burned for about four hours, each mark represented 20 minutes. Once lit, the candles were placed in wooden framed glass boxes, to prevent the flame from extinguishing.

The most sophisticated candle clocks of their time were those of Al-Jazari in 1206. One of his candle clocks included a dial to display the time and, for the first time, employed a bayonet fitting, a fastening mechanism still used in modern times.Donald Routledge Hill described Al-Jazari's candle clocks as follows:

The candle, whose rate of burning was known, bore against the underside of the cap, and its wick passed through the hole. Wax collected in the indentation and could be removed periodically so that it did not interfere with steady burning. The bottom of the candle rested in a shallow dish that had a ring on its side connected through pulleys to a counterweight. As the candle burned away, the weight pushed it upward at a constant speed. The automata were operated from the dish at the bottom of the candle. No other candle clocks of this sophistication are known.

An oil-lamp clock
A variation on this theme were oil-lamp clocks. These early timekeeping devices consisted of a graduated glass reservoir to hold oil — usually whale oil, which burned cleanly and evenly — supplying the fuel for a built-in lamp. As the level in the reservoir dropped, it provided a rough measure of the passage of time.

Incense clocks

In addition to water, mechanical, and candle clocks, incense clocks were used in the Far East, and were fashioned in several different forms.Incense clocks were first used in China around the 6th century; in Japan, one still exists in the Shōsōin, although its characters are not Chinese, but Devanagari.Due to their frequent use of Devanagari characters, suggestive of their use in Buddhist ceremonies, Edward H. Schafer speculated that incense clocks were invented in India.Although similar to the candle clock, incense clocks burned evenly and without a flame; therefore, they were more accurate and safer for indoor use.


Several types of incense clock have been found, the most common forms include the incense stick and incense seal.An incense stick clock was an incense stick with calibrations; most were elaborate, sometimes having threads, with weights attached, at even intervals. The weights would drop onto a platter or gong below, signifying that a certain amount of time had elapsed. Some incense clocks were held in elegant trays; open-bottomed trays were also used, to allow the weights to be used together with the decorative tray. Sticks of incense with different scents were also used, so that the hours were marked by a change in fragrance. The incense sticks could be straight or spiraled; the spiraled ones were longer, and were therefore intended for long periods of use, and often hung from the roofs of homes and temples.

In Japan, a geisha was paid for the number of senkodokei (incense sticks) that had been consumed while she was present, a practice which continued until 1924.Incense seal clocks were used for similar occasions and events as the stick clock; while religious purposes were of primary importance, these clocks were also popular at social gatherings, and were used by Chinese scholars and intellectuals.The seal was a wooden or stone disk with one or more grooves etched in it into which incense was placed.These clocks were common in China, but were produced in fewer numbers in Japan. To signal the passage of a specific amount of time, small pieces of fragrant woods, resins, or different scented incenses could be placed on the incense powder trails. Different powdered incense clocks used different formulations of incense, depending on how the clock was laid out.The length of the trail of incense, directly related to the size of the seal, was the primary factor in determining how long the clock would last; all burned for long periods of time, ranging between 12 hours and a month.

While early incense seals were made of wood or stone, the Chinese gradually introduced disks made of metal, most likely beginning during the Song dynasty. This allowed craftsmen to more easily create both large and small seals, as well as design and decorate them more aesthetically. Another advantage was the ability to vary the paths of the grooves, to allow for the changing length of the days in the year. As smaller seals became more readily available, the clocks grew in popularity among the Chinese, and were often given as gifts. Incense seal clocks are often sought by modern-day clock collectors; however, few remain that have not already been purchased or been placed on display at museums or temples

Mechanical Clocks

In 1656, 'Christian Huygens' (Dutch scientist), made the first 'Pendulum clock', with a mechanism using a 'natural' period of oscillation. 'Galileo Galilei' is credited, in most historical books, for inventing the pendulum as early as 1582, but his design was not built before his death. Huygens' clock ,when built, had an error of 'less than only one minute a day'. This was a massive leap in the development of maintaining accuracy, as this had previously never been achieved. Later refinements to the pendulum clock reduced this margin of error to 'less than 10 seconds a day'.

Huygens, in 1657, developed what is known today as the 'balance wheel and spring assembly', which is still found in some of today's wrist watches. This allowed watches of the seventeenth-century to keep accuracy of time to approximately ten minutes a day. Meanwhile, in London, England (UK) in 1671, 'William Clement' began building clocks with an 'anchor' or 'recoil' escapement, which interfered even less with the perpetual motion of the pendulum system of clock.


'George Graham', in 1721, invented a design with the degree of accuracy to 'one second a day' by compensating for changes in the pendulum's length caused by temperature variations. The mechanical clock continued to develop until they achieved an accuracy of 'a hundredth-of-a-second a day', when the pendulum clock became the accepted standard in most astronomical observatories.

Quartz Clocks

The running of a 'Quartz clock' is based on the piezoelectric property of the quartz crystal. When an electric field is applied to a quartz crystal, it actually changes the shape of the crystal itself. If you then squeeze it or bend it, an electric field is generated. When placed in an appropriate electronic circuit, this interaction. between the mechanical stress and the electrical field. causes the crystal to vibrate, generating a constant electric signal which can then be used for example on an electronic clock display. The first wrist-watches that appeared in mass production used 'LED', 'Light Emitting Diode' displays. By the 1970's these were to be replaced by a 'LCD', 'Liquid Crystal Display'.
Quartz clocks continue to dominate the market because of the accuracy and reliability of the performance, also being inexpensive to produce on mass scale. The time keeping performance of the quartz clock has now been surpassed by the 'Atomic clock'.


Digital clocks

Rise of the digital era enabled us to gain access to very precise and reliable electronic clocks that display time with numeric displays. The two most common display formats are 24-hour notation (from 00-23) and in 12-hor notation where clock must also show AM/PM indicator. With each passing year, digital clocks gain ground over slowly disappearing analogue clocks. Display surface of this clock does not need to be inside of small LCD, LED or VFD screens, but they can also be projected on either very large public surfaces or indoors for persons with imperfects vision.


Modern Time Device
Electronic Word clocks

Word clocks are not using numeric display, but instead they are writing natural sentences on the screen that tells us time. Sentences can be recorded either via software or with hardware.

Auditory clocks


Clocks that used recording of human voice or computer generated voice to tell time. Alternatively, instead of voice time can be presented as auditory codes. This type of clocks is often used for announcing time in large areas (church bells that tool specific number of times at the start of each hour), telephony or for blind people.

Tactile clocks

People with imperfect vision or blindness can also use clocks that are producing physical representation of the numbers on their surfaces, either as standard numbers or in blind text code.

Multi Display clocks

This type of clock can be either analogue or digital, and their main feature is ability to show multiple time zones, have multiple faces, or use several time standards.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Plain of Jars ,Laos

The Plain of Jars  is a megalithic archaeological landscape in Laos. Scattered in the landscape of the Xieng Khouang plateau, Xieng Khouang, Lao PDR, are thousands of megalithic jars. These stone jars appear in clusters, ranging from a single or a few to several hundred jars at lower foothills surrounding the central plain and upland valleys.


The Xieng Khouang Plateau is located at the northern end of the Annamese Cordillera, the principal mountain range of Indochina. Initial research of the Plain of Jars in the early 1930s claimed that the stone jars are associated with prehistoric burial practices. Excavation by Lao and Japanese archaeologists in the intervening years has supported this interpretation with the discovery of human remains, burial goods and ceramics around the stone jars. The Plain of Jars is dated to the Iron Age (500 BC to AD 500) and is one of the most important sites for studying Southeast Asian prehistory. The Plain of Jars has the potential to shed light on the relationship between increasingly complex societies and megalithic structures and provide insight into social organisation of Iron Age Southeast Asia’s communities.

Laos Plain Of Jars 6

More than 90 sites are known within the province of Xieng Khouang. Each site ranges from 1 up to 400 stone jars. The jars vary in height and diameter between 1 and 3 metres and are all without exception hewn out of rock. The shape is cylindrical with the bottom always wider than the top. The stone jars are undecorated with the exception of a single jar at Site 1. This jar has a human bas-relief carved on the exterior. Parallels between this ‘frogman’ at Site 1 and the rock painting at Huashan in Guangxi, China have been drawn. The paintings, which depict large full-frontal humans with arms raised and knees bent, are dated to 500 BC - 200 AD .

Laos Plain Of Jars 23

From the fact that most of the jars have lip rims, it is presumed that all stone jars supported lids, although few stone lids have been recorded; this may suggest that the bulk of lids were fashioned from perishable materials. Stone lids with animal representations have been noticed at few sites such as Ban Phakeo (Site 52). The bas-relief animals are thought to be monkeys, tigers and frogs. No in situ lid has ever been found.


Not to be confused with stone lids are the stone discs. The stone discs have at least one flat side and are grave markers which were placed on the surface to cover or mark a burial pit. These grave markers appear more infrequently than stone jars, but are found in close proximity. Similar are stone grave markers; these stones are unworked, but have been placed intentionally to mark a grave. To the north of Xieng Khouang an extensive network of intentionally placed largely unworked stones marking elaborate burial pits and chambers are known as ‘standing stones of Huaphan’. Following the investigations by Colani, these were dated to the Bronze Age. Material associated with the stone grave markers in Xieng Khouang, however, is similar to the stone jars artefacts.

The jars lie in clusters on the lower footslopes and mountain ridges of the hills surrounding the central plateau and upland valleys. Several quarry sites have been recorded usually close to the jar sites. Five rock types are known:sandstone, granite, conglomerate, limestone and breccia.

The majority of the jars are sandstone and have been manufactured with a degree of knowledge of what materials and techniques were suitable. It is assumed that Plain of Jars' people used iron chisels to manufacture the jars, although no conclusive evidence for this exists. Regional differences in jar shape have been noted. While the differences in most cases can be attributed to choice and manipulation of rock source, form differences, such as small apertures and apertures on both ends (double holed jars) which would affect the use of the jar, have been recorded in one district only.

The cave at Site 1 is a natural limestone cave with an opening to the northwest and two man-made holes at the top of the cave. These holes are interpreted as chimneys of the crematorium. French geologist and amateur archaeologist Madeleine Colani excavated inside the cave in the early 1930s and found archaeological material to support a centralized crematorium theory. Colani also recorded and excavated at twelve Plain of Jars sites and published two volumes with her findings in 1935.

The material findings and context led her to the interpretation of the Plain of Jars as an Iron Age burial site. Inside the jars, she found embedded in black organic soil coloured glass beads, burnt teeth and bone fragments, sometimes from more than one individual. Around the stone jars, she found human bones, pottery fragments, iron and bronze objects, glass and stone beads, ceramic weights and charcoal. The bone and teeth inside the stone jars show signs of cremation, while the burials surrounding the jars yield unburnt secondary burial bones.


Lao stories and legends tell of a race of giants who inhabited the area ruled by a king called Khun Cheung, who fought a long, eventually victorious battle against his enemy. He allegedly created the jars to brew and store huge amounts of lau hai ("lau" means "alcohol", "hai" means "jar"—So "lau hai" means rice beer or rice wine in the jars) to celebrate his victory. Another local tradition states the jars were molded, using natural materials such as clay, sand, sugar, and animal products in a type of stone mix. This led the locals to believe the cave at Site 1 was actually a kiln, and that the huge jars were fired there and are not actually of stone.

Another suggested explanation for the jars' use is to collect monsoon rainwater for caravan travelers along their journey at times when rain may have been seasonal and water was not readily available on the easiest foot paths. Rainwater would then be boiled, even if stagnant, to become potable again, a practice long understood in Eastern Eurasia. The trade caravans that camped around these jars could have placed beads inside them as an offering, accompanying prayers for rain. Or the beads might simply have been unassociated lost items.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Valley of the Kings ,Egypt

The Valley of the Kings was a great burial ground for the Pharaohs. After around 1500 B.C. the Pharaohs no longer built great pyramids in which to be buried. Instead, most of them were buried in tombs in the Valley of the Kings.


How Many Tombs are in the Valley of the Kings?

There are over 60 tombs in the Valley of the Kings. They vary from small tombs that are little more than a large hole in the ground to very large tombs with over 100 underground chambers.


Unfortunately, most of the tombs were looted thousands of years ago and the treasure was stolen or removed by thieves. There is artwork on the walls, however, that allows archeologists to learn much about the lives of the Pharaohs and other leaders who were buried here. The one tomb that was discovered with much of the treasure and tomb still intact was that of Tutankhamun.

The Tomb of Tutankhamun


The most famous tomb in the Valley of the Kings is that of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, sometimes called King Tut. It was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter and had been largely untouched by thieves and vandals. Carter found the tomb under the remains of some workmen's huts. This may be why it had not been found by tomb raiders. The tomb was packed with amazing artifacts including King Tut's mummy, a gold mask, and a solid gold inner coffin. The tomb contained several chambers including the burial chamber, antechamber, treasure chamber, and annex.


Details on Others Tombs in Kings Valley

The area has been a major area of modern Egyptological exploration for the last two centuries. Before this the area was a site for tourism in antiquity . This area illustrates the changes in the study of ancient Egypt, starting as antiquity hunting, and ending as scientific excavation of the whole Theban Necropolis. Despite the exploration and investigation noted below, only eleven of the tombs have actually been completely recorded.


Many of the tombs have graffiti written by these ancient tourists. Jules Baillet located over 2100 Greek and Latin graffiti, along with a smaller number in Phoenician, Cypriot, Lycian, Coptic, and other languages. The majority of the ancient graffiti are found in KV9, which contains just under a thousand of them. The earliest positively dated graffiti dates to 278 B.C.


In 1799, members of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt (especially Dominique Vivant) drew maps and plans of the known tombs, and for the first time noted the Western Valley (where Prosper Jollois and Édouard de Villiers du Terrage located the tomb of Amenhotep III, WV22). The Description de l'Égypte contains two volumes (out a total of 24) on the area around Thebes.


European exploration continued in the area around Thebes during the nineteenth century, boosted by Champollion's translation of hieroglyphs early in the century. Early in the century, the area was visited by Belzoni, working for Henry Salt, who discovered several tombs, including those of Ay in the West Valley (WV23) in 1816 and Seti I (KV17) the next year. At the end of his visits, Belzoni declared that all of the tombs had been found and nothing of note remained to be found. Working at the same time (and a great rival of Belzoni and Salt) was Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul-General.When Gaston Maspero was reappointed to head the Egyptian Antiquities Service, the nature of the exploration of the valley changed again. Maspero appointed English archaeologist Howard Carter as the Chief Inspector of Upper Egypt and the young man discovered several new tombs and explored several others, clearing KV42 and KV20.


Around the start of the 20th century, the American Theodore M. Davis had the excavation permit in the valley, and his team (led mostly by Edward R. Ayrton) discovered several royal and non-royal tombs (including KV43, KV46 and KV57). In 1907 they discovered the possible Amarna Period cache in KV55. After finding what they thought was all that remained of the burial of Tutankhamun (items recovered from KV54 and KV58), it was announced that the valley was completely explored and no further burials were to be found, in Davis's 1912 publication, The Tombs of Harmhabi and Touatânkhamanou; the book closes with the comment, "I fear that the Valley of Kings is now exhausted.After Davis's death early in 1915 Lord Carnarvon acquired the concession to excavate the valley and he employed Carter to explore it. After a systematic search they discovered the actual tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62) in November 1922.


Various expeditions have continued to explore the valley, adding greatly to the knowledge of the area. In 2001 the Theban Mapping Project designed new signs for the tombs, providing information and plans of the open tombs.


Most of the tombs are not open to the public (18 of the tombs can be opened, but they are rarely open at the same time), and officials occasionally close those that are open for restoration work. The number of visitors to KV62 has led to a separate charge for entry into the tomb. The West Valley has only one open tomb—that of Ay—and a separate ticket is needed to visit this tomb. The tour guides are no longer allowed to lecture inside the tombs and visitors are expected to proceed quietly and in single file through the tombs. This is to minimize time in the tombs and prevent the crowds from damaging the surfaces of the decoration. Photography is no longer allowed in the tombs.


In 1997, 58 tourists and four Egyptians were massacred at nearby Deir el-Bahri by Islamist militants from Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya. This led to an overall drop in tourism in the area.On most days of the week an average of four to five thousand tourists visit the main valley. On the days that the Nile Cruises arrive, the number can rise to over nine thousand. These levels are expected to rise to 25,000 by 2015.The West Valley is much less visited, as there is only one tomb that is open to the public






Open daily.
1 May – Ramadan: 6:00 AM – 7:00 PM
(last ticket sold at 6:00 PM)
Ramadan – 30 April: 6:00 AM – 5:00 PM
(last ticket sold at 4:00 PM)

General Admission:(Includes admission to the area and to THREE of the following tombs, which are open to the public.)
Ramesses I
Ramesses III
Ramesses IV
Ramesses VII
Ramesses IX
Seti II
Thutmose III
Thutmose IV

Egyptian: 4 LE
Egyptian Student: 2 LE
Foreign: 70 LE
Foreign Student: 35 LE
Train: 2 LE

Tickets for the tombs of Ramesses VI, Tutankhamun, and Ay must be purchased separately (see below for details).
Tomb of Ramesses VI:    Egyptian: 2 LE
Egyptian Student: 1 LE
Foreign: 50 LE
Foreign Student: 25 LE
Tomb of Tutankhamun:    Egyptian: 10 LE
Egyptian Student: 5 LE
Foreign: 80 LE
Foreign Student: 40 LE
Tomb of Ay:    Egyptian: 2 LE
Egyptian Student: 1 LE
Foreign: 20 LE
Foreign Student: 10 LE

Student rates are available to bearers of a valid student ID from an Egyptian university or an International Student ID Card

West Bank, Luxor

BY TAXI: ask for “wadi al-maluk” for the East Valley (KV), and “wadi al-gurub” for the West Valley (WV), also known as the “Valley of the Monkeys.”

Visitor’s center, gift shop.