Sunday, July 28, 2013

Preah Vihear Temple


Preah Vihear Temple  is an ancient temple built during the reign of Khmer Empire, that is situated atop a 525-metre (1,722 ft) cliff in the Dângrêk Mountains, in the Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. In 1962, following a lengthy dispute between Thailand and Cambodia over ownership, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague awarded the temple to Cambodia.


Affording a view for many kilometers across a plain, Prasat Preah Vihear has the most spectacular setting of all the temples built during the six-centuries-long Khmer Empire. As a key edifice of the empire's spiritual life, it was supported and modified by successive kings and so bears elements of several architectural styles. Preah Vihear is unusual among Khmer temples in being constructed along a long north-south axis, rather than having the conventional rectangular plan with orientation toward the east. The temple gives its name to Cambodia's Preah Vihear province, in which it is now located, as well as the Khao Phra Wihan National Park which borders it in Thailand's Sisaket province and through which the temple is most easily accessible. Preah Vihear is perched on a hilltop with a commanding view of its surroundings. Predating Angkor Wat by 100 years, the history of the temple/fortress is somewhat unclear, but it is known to be dedicated to the god Shiva and thought to have been constructed in the reign of Suryavarman I (1002-50), with further significant additions by Suryavarman II (1113-50). Unlike most Khmer temples, the temple is constructed on a long north-south axis, instead of the usual rectangular plan facing east.

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Haa Valley,Bhutan


Adjoining the districts of Paro, Chhukha and Samtse, Haa valley is one of the most picturesque places in the Kingdom, spread over an area of 1706 sq. km. During pre-Buddhist era, Haa valley was known for its animist tradition. Inhabitants then were enthused in offering animal blood to their local deities. Such animist belief however was transformed into peaceful Buddhist tradition in 8th century by Guru Padmasambhava. The tantric master, Guru Padmasambhava, subdued the local deities like Ap Chundu and made the guardians of the Buddhist tradition. However, the traces of this belief system are still noticed in the form of festivals and rituals.
The Haa valley was opened for the first time to foreign tourists in 2002.  It is culturally rich valley and some of famous sites in this region are : 7th century Lhakhang Karpo (White temple) and Lhakhang Nagpo  (Black temple) at the foothills of a venerated three brotherly mountains known as Meri Puensum. The grand annual Haa Tshechu is also performed here at Lhakhang Karpo on the 8th-10th day of the 8th Bhutanese month.

Haa Valley

The Haa Wangchuklo Dzong built in 1915 after the Dumchog Dzong was razed to the ground by fire is worth visiting. The other place of interest which involves some walking includes the hike to the 8th century Juneydrag, Katsho Goempa, Drana Trashidingkhag, Yangto Goempa, Jamtoe Goempa, Shelkardrag, Takchu Goempa and Haa Goempa.















The valley is also unparalleled in Bhutan in terms of the diversity of the folk culture, legends and shamanistic rituals. The shamanistic traditions is vividly practiced in almost all the communities, most notable of which is the annual ceremony to honour Ap Chundu, the guardian deity of the valley. The valley is also a paradise for nature lovers and travelling there is a very rewarding experience. 


RIP:Tamil Lyricist Valli










Vaali, the great poet-lyricist-actor-writer needs no introduction. An active member of Tamil film industry for five decades, Vaali wrote some 10,000 Tamil songs in his career.
As an actor, Vaali appeared in Hey Ram, Sathya and Paarthale Parvasam. He has also scripted for latest Tamil Movie Thillu Mullu.
Vaali had also penned the biographies of Rama, Krishna and Ramanuja. He even wrote an autobiography titled "Naanum Indha Nootrandum".
Born as T.S Rangarajan, he rechristened himself as Vaali, since he was a devoted fan of artist Mali.
Before picking up the pen to write, he worked with All India Radio (AIR) for a brief period of time. He was also actively involved in Tamil theatre and even directed few plays.
He came to Chennai in 1950 and struggled for many years. He wrote his first song in 1958 for the film "Azhagarmalai Kalla", but his much needed recognition came in 1963 with the song "Idaythil Nee" from the film "Karpagam".
In 1964, Vaali penned the lyrics for the song "Thottal Poo Malurum" from the film "Padagotti" featuring late Tamil Nadu chief minister M.G Ramachandran (MGR). The song went on to be a chartbuster, and subsequently he wrote for almost all films of MGR.
Besides MGR, Vaali also wrote several songs for Kamal Haasan and Rajinikanth. In the last decade, he wrote songs for young actors such Dhanush, Siddharth and Suriya.
In Dhanush-starrer Tamil romantic-drama "Maryan", which is releasing Friday, Vaali wrote two songs "Naetru Aval" and "Sonapareeya".
Known to be the nemesis of lyricist Kannadasan, Vaali only went on to be called his heir-apparent. Even though both were professional rivals, but in real life they were considered best friends.
Vaali has more than 10,000 songs to his credit. In his illustrious career, he has penned several chartbusters such as "Naan Aanai Ittal", "Moondrezhuthil Yen Moochirukkum" and "Puthiya Vaanam,
Puthiya Boomi".

Google to announce Android 4.3 on 24 July


Google has begun sending out invitations for an Android event on 24 July where the firm is expected to unveil the next iteration of its mobile operating system.






Google's cryptic invitation doesn't give much away, simply summoning press to join it for breakfast with new Android chief Sundar Pichai. The event will take place in San Francisco, and the invitation hints that it will be live streamed online.
While Google was unable to give us any clues, it's widely expected that the firm will unveil the next release of Android, tipped to be Android 4.3 Jelly Bean, not version 5.0 as previously rumoured. This would make sense too, with Apple gearing up to release iOS 7 and speculation rife that Motorola will launch its Moto X smartphone running Android 4.3 Jelly Bean in the coming weeks.
We don't know much about Android 4.3 Jelly Bean, and it's thought that the update won't be a game changer. Instead, it's expected to bring a handful of font changes, a revamped Camera app, improved Notifications and a number of bug fixes. There's also a chance that it will deliver the Open Mic feature that appeared in a leaked Moto X video this week, which will enable compliant smartphones with an always listening mode.
There's chatter than Google might be planning to unveil some new Nexus kit at the event too, specifically the Google Nexus 5 smartphone and Google Nexus 7 2. While little is known about the next generation Nexus smartphone, there have been plenty of rumours about the Nexus 7 sequel, which apparently will feature a quad-core Qualcomm Snapdragon processor, a high-resolution touchscreen and the same price as its budget predecessor.

Saturday, July 27, 2013

Windows Commands and short cuts that can be used Using RUN

Here is a list of commands that you can run off from the Run Command Prompt:

Program Run Command


Accessibility Controls = access.cpl
Accessibility Wizard = accwiz
Add Hardware Wizard = hdwwiz.cpl
Add/Remove Programs = appwiz.cpl
Administrative Tools = control admintools
Adobe Acrobat ( if installed ) = acrobat
Adobe Distiller ( if installed ) = acrodist
Adobe ImageReady ( if installed ) = imageready
Adobe Photoshop ( if installed ) = photoshop
Automatic Updates = wuaucpl.cpl
Basic Media Player = mplay32
Bluetooth Transfer Wizard = fsquirt

Calculator = calc
Ccleaner ( if installed ) = ccleaner
C: Drive = c:
Certificate Manager = cdrtmgr.msc
Character Map = charmap
Check Disk Utility = chkdsk
Clipboard Viewer = clipbrd
Command Prompt = cmd
Command Prompt = command
Component Services = dcomcnfg
Computer Management = compmgmt.msc
Compare Files = comp
Control Panel = control
Create a shared folder Wizard = shrpubw

Date and Time Properties = timedate.cpl
DDE Shares = ddeshare
Device Manager = devmgmt.msc
Direct X Control Panel ( if installed ) = directx.cpl
Direct X Troubleshooter = dxdiag
Disk Cleanup Utility = cleanmgr
Disk Defragment = dfrg.msc
Disk Partition Manager = diskmgmt.msc
Display Properties = control desktop
Display Properties = desk.cpl
Display Properties (w/Appearance Tab Preselected ) = control color
Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility = drwtsn32
Driver Verifier Utility = verifier

Ethereal ( if installed ) = ethereal
Event Viewer = eventvwr.msc
Files and Settings Transfer Tool = migwiz
File Signature Verification Tool = sigverif
Findfast = findfast.cpl
Firefox = firefox
Folders Properties = control folders
Fonts = fonts
Fonts Folder = fonts
Free Cell Card Game = freecell

Game Controllers = joy.cpl
Group Policy Editor ( xp pro ) = gpedit.msc
Hearts Card Game = mshearts
Help and Support = helpctr
Hyperterminal = hypertrm
Hotline Client = hotlineclient

Iexpress Wizard = iexpress
Indexing Service = ciadv.msc
Internet Connection Wizard = icwonn1
Internet Properties = inetcpl.cpl
Internet Setup Wizard = inetwiz
IP Configuration (Display Connection Configuration) = ipconfig /all
IP Configuration (Display DNS Cache Contents) = ipconfig /displaydns
IP Configuration (Delete DNS Cache Contents) = ipconfig /flushdns
IP Configuration (Release All Connections) = ipconfig /release
IP Configuration (Renew All Connections) = ipconfig /renew
IP Configuration (Refreshes DHCP & Re-Registers DNS) = ipconfig /registerdns
IP Configuration (Display DHCP Class ID) = ipconfig /showclassid
IP Configuration (Modifies DHCP Class ID) = ipconfig /setclassid

Java Control Panel ( if installed ) = jpicpl32.cpl
Java Control Panel ( if installed ) = javaws
Keyboard Properties = control keyboard

Local Security Settings = secpol.msc
Local Users and Groups = lusrmgr.msc
Logs You Out of Windows = logoff

Malicious Software Removal Tool = mrt
Microsoft Access ( if installed ) = access.cpl
Microsoft Chat = winchat
Microsoft Excel ( if installed ) = excel
Microsoft Diskpart = diskpart
Microsoft Frontpage ( if installed ) = frontpg
Microsoft Movie Maker = moviemk
Microsoft Management Console = mmc
Microsoft Narrator = narrator
Microsoft Paint = mspaint
Microsoft Powerpoint = powerpnt
Microsoft Word ( if installed ) = winword
Microsoft Syncronization Tool = mobsync
Minesweeper Game = winmine
Mouse Properties = control mouse
Mouse Properties = main.cpl
MS-Dos Editor = edit
MS-Dos FTP = ftp

Nero ( if installed ) = nero
Netmeeting = conf
Network Connections = control netconnections
Network Connections = ncpa.cpl
Network Setup Wizard = netsetup.cpl
Notepad = notepad
Nview Desktop Manager ( if installed ) = nvtuicpl.cpl

Object Packager = packager
ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbccp32
ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbccp32.cpl
On Screen Keyboard = osk
Opens AC3 Filter ( if installed ) = ac3filter.cpl
Outlook Express = msimn

Paint = pbrush
Password Properties = password.cpl
Performance Monitor = perfmon.msc
Performance Monitor = perfmon
Phone and Modem Options = telephon.cpl
Phone Dialer = dialer
Pinball Game = pinball
Power Configuration = powercfg.cpl
Printers and Faxes = control printers
Printers Folder = printers
Private Characters Editor = eudcedit

Quicktime ( if installed ) = quicktime.cpl
Quicktime Player ( if installed ) = quicktimeplayer

Real Player ( if installed ) = realplay
Regional Settings = intl.cpl
Registry Editor = regedit
Registry Editor = regedit32
Remote Access Phonebook = rasphone
Remote Desktop = mstsc
Removable Storage = ntmsmgr.msc
Removable Storage Operator Requests = ntmsoprq.msc
Resultant Set of Policy ( xp pro ) = rsop.msc

Scanners and Cameras = sticpl.cpl
Scheduled Tasks = control schedtasks
Security Center = wscui.cpl
Services = services.msc
Shared Folders = fsmgmt.msc
Sharing Session = rtcshare
Shuts Down Windows = shutdown
Sounds Recorder = sndrec32
Sounds and Audio = mmsys.cpl
Spider Solitare Card Game = spider
SQL Client Configuration = clicongf
System Configuration Editor = sysedit
System Configuration Utility = msconfig
System File Checker Utility ( Scan Immediately ) = sfc /scannow
System File Checker Utility ( Scan Once At Next Boot ) = sfc /scanonce
System File Checker Utility ( Scan On Every Boot ) = sfc /scanboot
System File Checker Utility ( Return to Default Settings) = sfc /revert
System File Checker Utility ( Purge File Cache ) = sfc /purgecache
System File Checker Utility ( Set Cache Size to Size x ) = sfc /cachesize=x
System Information = msinfo32
System Properties = sysdm.cpl

Task Manager = taskmgr
TCP Tester = tcptest
Telnet Client = telnet
Tweak UI ( if installed ) = tweakui
User Account Management = nusrmgr.cpl
Utility Manager = utilman

Volume Serial Number for C: = label
Volume Control = sndvol32
Windows Address Book = wab
Windows Address Book Import Utility = wabmig
Windows Backup Utility ( if installed ) = ntbackup
Windows Explorer = explorer
Windows Firewall = firewall.cpl
Windows Installer Details = msiexec
Windows Magnifier = magnify

Windows Management Infrastructure = wmimgmt.msc
Windows Media Player = wmplayer
Windows Messenger = msnsgs
Windows Picture Import Wizard (Need camera connected) = wiaacmgr
Windows System Security Tool = syskey
Windows Script host settings = wscript
Widnows Update Launches = wupdmgr
Windows Version ( shows your windows version ) = winver
Windows XP Tour Wizard = tourstart
Wordpad = write
Zoom Utility = igfxzoom

If you found this list of Run Commands useful, please Like and Share to Everyone.!

Friday, July 19, 2013

Crimean Cave Cities:Chufut-Kale


Chufut-Kale is a national monument of Crimean Karaite culture and Tatar fortress in Crimea, near Bakhchisaray. Its name is Crimean Tatar and Turkish for "Jewish Fortress while Crimean Karaites refer to it simply as "Fortress",considering the place as historical center for the Crimean Karaite community.In the Middle Ages the fortress was known as Qırq Yer (Place of Forty) and as Karaites to which sect the greater part of its inhabitants belong, Sela' ha-Yehudim










Researchers are not unanimous as to the time of the town’s appearance. Some of them consider it to be a Byzantine fortress founded in the 6th century. Others are of the opinion the fortified settlement appeared in the 10th-11th centuries. During the early period of the town’s history, it was mainly populated by Alans, the most powerful of a late Sarmatian tribes of Iranian descent. They began penetrating the Crimea from the 2nd century AD. Settling down in the mountainous Crimea, the Alans adopted Christianity. In written sources the cave town is mentioned in the 13th century under the name of Kyrk-Or (Forty Fortifications). This name lasted until the mid-17th century. In 1299 the Tatar horde of Emir Nogai raided the Crimean peninsula. Kyrk-Or was among the sacked towns. Having seized the town, the Tatars quartered their garrison in it. At the turn of the 15th century, Tatars settled Karaite craftsmen in front of the eastern line of fortifications and built a second defensive wall to protect their settlement, and thus a new part of the town appeared.



In the 15th century the first Crimean Khan, Hadji-Girei, realizing the fortress’ advantages, turned the old section of the town into his fortified residence. After the defeat of the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate became considerably stronger. The significance of Kyrk-Or as a stronghold declined, and the Crimean Khan Menglis-Girei moved his capital to Bakhchisarai. The old town remained a citadel of Bakhchisarai and a place of incarceration for aristocratic prisoners. In the mid-17th century Tatars left Kyrk-Or. Only Karaites remained to live there due to anti-Jewish restrictions for stay in other towns of the Crimean Khanate. Tatars considered Karaites to be Jews, hence the town gradually acquired the name of Chufut-Kale, which in Turkic meant “Jewish fortress” with negative and scornful meaning.

After the Crimea’s conquest and its inclusion into the Russian empire government granted Karaites privileges, permitting them to live anywhere in the empire. From that time on, Chufut-Kale became deserted. By the mid-19th century the town ceased to exist.


Kiev Pechersk Lavra , Ukraine

Kiev Pechersk Lavra or Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is a historic Orthodox Christian monastery which gave its name to one of the city districts where it is located in Kiev.

Map picture

Since its foundation as the cave monastery in 1051 the Lavra has been a preeminent center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe. Together with the Saint Sophia Cathedral, it is inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.The monastery complex is considered a separate national historic-cultural preserve (sanctuary), the national status to which was granted on 13 March 1996.The Lavra also not only located in another part of the city, but is part of a different national sanctuary than Saint Sophia Cathedral. While being a cultural attraction, the monastery is currently active. It was named one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine on 21 August 2007, based on voting by experts and the internet community.

Kievo Pech Lavra







Currently, the jurisdiction over the site is divided between the state museum, National Kiev-Pechersk Historic-Cultural Preserve, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchy) as the site of the chief monastery of that Church and the residence of its leader, Metropolitan Volodymyr.


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Ohrid Lake, Ohrid


Lake Ohrid straddles the mountainous border between southwestern Macedonia and eastern Albania. It is one of Europe's deepest and oldest lakes, preserving a unique aquatic ecosystem that is of worldwide importance, with more than 200 endemic species.[1] The importance of the lake was further emphasized when it was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1979 and when, in 2010, NASA decided to name one of Titan's lakes after Lake Ohrid. The towns situated at the lakeside are Pogradec in Albania, along with Ohrid and Struga in Macedonia.










Lake Ohrid is the deepest lake of the Balkans, with a maximum depth of 288 m (940 ft) and a mean depth of 155 m (508 ft). It covers an area of 358 km² (138 sq mi), containing an estimated 55.4 km³ of water. It is 30.4 km long by 14.8 km wide at its maximum extent with a shoreline length of 87.53 km, shared between Macedonia (56.02 km) and Albania (31.51 km). The Ohrid Lake is divided between Republic of Macedonia and Albania. Of the total surface area, 248 km2 belongs to Republic of Macedonia and 110 km2 belongs to Albania.

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