Saturday, February 23, 2013

Art of Mughal Warfare

 

The art of Mughal warfare brought about a complete change in the way wars were fought in the Indian subcontinent. The Muslim armies that invaded India in the 11th and 12th centuries were small yet the art of their warfare made them invincible. They brought with them techniques and instruments of warfare that were hitherto unheard of in the sub-continent. The soldiers were completely protected from any possibility of physical attack by means of a complete shield of armour from head to foot, their daggers and swords were made of superior alloys and they brought with them the use of gunfire in warfare. That is why, despite the courage and valour of the Indian armies a small group of warriors was able to overtake them and lay the foundation for one of the grandest Empires in Indian history, the Mughal Empire.

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Recruitment in the Mughal Army
The Mansabdars or high ranking officials of the Mughal administrative system did the process of recruitment for the grand Mughal army. Men from military families who provided their own horses were recruited as cavalrymen. Initially they were mainly Muslim recruits. However as the Empire grew stronger in India, a number of Hindu warriors from the Kshatriya and warring castes were recruited. This is particularly true of the Rajputs in Rajasthan. These Hindu warriors were allowed to train and function under their own respective Kings and Rajahs. The army was divided into infantry, artillery and cavalry of which cavalry was the most important.

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Mughal War Outfit
The Mughals had an all-encompassing outfit for war that would secure maximum protection. Every part of the body had a corresponding unit for protection-head, torso and limbs. Discussed below are the various body protection units used by the Mughal warriors.

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Armour of mail and plate
A coat made of a combination of mail and plate was worn as body armour. This was known as the Bukhtar. Thick metal acted as a shield against incoming weapons like arrows and lances. This had become popular among the Mongols in the fifteenth century and the Mughals continued its usage right until the Seventeenth century. The coat of mail worn by the ruler and high ranking Amirs reached right up to the knees and was elaborately decorated even with gold bands. Under this was worn a linen or cotton smock which worked as a kind of talisman with writings from the scriptures printed on it. Apart from the Bukhtar, another kind of armour was the Angirkha, where an armour vest was worn under the coat and the Jama was over the Garment to make it in visible. This was usually worn for the protection of the Royal family.

Apart from the mail coat, the cavalry was additionally protected by forearm defences, thigh and knee defences. Arm braces and leg armour of the higher ranks were very expensive, and in the case of the Emperor, the arm braces reached up to the elbows and were lined with velvet.

Shields


Shields were also used for the purpose of protection. This was made out a variety of materials such as cane and bamboo (Pahri), wood and leather (Juna) hides of animals like buffalo and Deer and even crocodile, tortoise and Rhinoceros skin with the last being a prized possession. Shields known as Sipar were made of iron and steel.

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Helmet of Mail and Plate
As headgears, helmets and chain mail were extensively used. This enabled the men to clearly see their enemies while fighting them. The helmet was fitted like cap and had neck protector attached to it. The Emperor used to wear a helmet made of gold. The helmet was typically Mughal outfit which was continued in use by subsequent rulers.

Horse armor of Mail and Plate

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Horses were considered as extremely valuable not only as a commodity for import purposes but also due to their extreme importance in warfare. It was on the horses that the warriors were seated and they had to move around the war field on horseback as well. It was therefore of prime importance to protect them from injury. The armour for the horses was made of separate metal pieces that would be fitted on the horse to protect the entire length of its body. A flat metal plate was moulded to fit on their heads to protect their faces from the onslaught of arrows.

The Mughal rulers, in order to ensure superior stock even instituted certain programs for the purpose of breeding horses. Indigenous breeds were found along the river valleys of the Deccan and Kutch (Gujarat). However the best quality horses were those that were brought from Iran via the Hindukush Mountains. Royal horses used in warfare were stamped with the official seal in order to distinguish them from other animals of a lower stock.

Weapons used in Mughal Warfare
The Mughals used various sophisticated weapons for warfare which was the prime reason for their triumph in the sub-continent. A major development in war was made by the introduction of gunpowder in Indian battle, a feat never accomplished before. Among the commonly used weapons are the sword and dagger, guns and cannon, archery and the extensive use of cavalry and infantry during war.

Sword

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A major change was brought about in the shape and quality of swords since after the advent of the Mughal rule. They brought with them the curved sword, as opposed to the heavy straight swords with rounded ends as was in use at the time. These were sleek, sharp. Curved and made of a superior alloy of iron. The most superior quality blades were imported from Iran and made of crucible steel which gave it a crystalline appearance was capable of cutting deep into the armour and bodies of their adversaries. The ruler always carried with him a sword enclosed in a red sheath. The `Indo-Muslim` hilt, with its typical dish-shaped pommel, seems to have been introduced by the Mughals, and spread throughout India together with the curved-blade, or Talwar. The Mughals and their successors continued to patronize this tradition through royal workshops or Karkhana, and some of the most exquisite items still in existence came from this source

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The finest among the swords was considered to be the Shamsher. It was a curved sword with a sharp edge that was primarily used as a cutting weapon. This type of sword was of great value and in fact later went on to become one of the most preferred swords and part of the couture of the Hindu Rajput warriors, called the Khanda.

Daggers (Jamadhar)
Apart from swords, the Muslim armies also used the dagger for purposes of warfare. This was a sharp two-edged instrument that was kept hidden in the boot of the horseman (Khuff).This was used as a secondary weapon.

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Archery
The use of bows and arrows, after its skilled usage in the hands of the Central Asian Turks, continued to be practiced by the Mughals. The Bow, typically double- curved, was carried in a container known as the Qirban whereas arrows were carried in quivers called Tarkash. The Mughals were quite skilled in archery and have even been known to poison the tip of the arrows to incapacitate the enemy. Special care was taken even in the manufacturing of these weapons. Bow-makers were sent to special training centres in Damascus and then only the best were allowed to manufacture the same for the purpose of warfare.

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Gunpowder and Cannons
The Mughals introduced in India the system of gunfire shot from cannons. This was a very effective ploy in the art of war as apart from the damage on impact, the explosion served to disorient and frighten the horses and elephants. This allowed the cavalry to charge in and prevent the enemies from forming strategies and countering the attack. Cannons, though extremely effective, were quite problematic to transport because of their size and weight. The cannon balls themselves were five hundred forty pounds and the cannon had to be matched accordingly to bear this weight.

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From the late fifteenth century there was widespread use of firearms-cannons, muskets and mortars. They were considerably improved and extensively used during the reign of Akbar. In fact the emperor himself had an impressive collection of arms categorized according to weight, make etc. were a large number of musketeers in the Mughal army as muskets tended to overheat and were slow to reload.

Other weapons used by the Mughals include maces (Gada), with a dome shaped head and a handle and knob at the end, Piyazi and Garguz shaped like an onion and a flower with eight petals respectively. In order to break the helmet and armour of the enemy soldiers, Shapshar and Amud were used. War axes were great favourites of the infantry as were the Jaghnol-a sharp blade fitted with a spike at the back to pierce through the armour. The tiger claw or Bagh Nakh was another lethal weapon used to disembowel an enemy. This was often used for the purpose of political assassination.

MOGUL WAR ELEPHANTS FROM OSPREY

Armed with these various weapons of war, the Mughals reigned supreme in the Indian subcontinent as consequent wars and sustained victories led to the growth of a vast Empire. Many of their practices were later taken up and continued by the different Indian rulers, most noted among them the Rajputs.

Viswaroopam Movie Review

 

Note:SAW THIS SOMEWHERE IN INTERNET. GOOD ANALYSIS

These are just spoilers,if you haven't watched viswaroopam yet,Don't go further.Let me get to core of the movie.Right from first scene,Kamal uses pigeon to paddle the boat ;Pigeon signifies peace,and so it does in the film too, it signifies peace loving 'Muslims',or "ISLAM THE RELIGION OF PEACE".Many believe "People gotta have some global knowledge to understand Kamal's film".

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I'd to like make some changes on the words,"People don't have to have global knowledge to understand the story/film of Kamal sir's,but they gotta have global knowledge to understand the buried messages/information in kamal sir's film"

When I saw the first time I never realized,but after i had come to home i realized,film does not start with the Nirupamma's narration ,rather the story starts right immediately after the title.

While title credit goes on at the back ground,one can notice pigeons in their own cages until a man/terrorist walks in, feeds (thoughts of Jihad) those pigeons. He chooses a white pigeon and sends it,and it ain't white anymore,it has some black spots on it; It symbolizes Muslims are brainwashed to Jihads; the black spotted pigeon flies across Wall street,and lands at charging bull; Charging bull implies aggressive financial optimism and prosperity of the American economy at Wall Street,i guess; Kamal sir tries to explain how terrorists had brought American economy down by bombarding Twin tower,and post military,and army expenses which brought down America's economy.

Coming to the main plot,film was banned at many places during the initial release,because Muslims thought the film had had scenes which were offensive to their religious practices,and their religion,but the film proves jihads have got wrong perception over Koran,and they follow Islam in a wrong way.

1) The scene where boys dance wearing female attire to entertain the public,Omar and his men destroy the dance and give punishments to all those boys as it's a sin but the same Omar allows his son to wear burka to demolish few of the American's tanks.This shows Omar and his men do not follow or do not know what the true meaning of Islam is. They ain't Islams; they just use Islamism as a Blanket/coverlet to justify their opinions.

2) After the damage done by the US army,Severely wounderd Omar asks Wisam(Kamal) why is "OUR RELIGION" treated this way? Why Muslims are being tortured so much in this world?Why should we shed tears? Wisam replies "WE ARE JIHADS" (replacing "religion" to "jihads" from Omar's question) we are not meant to shed tears,but to shed blood. "You have answered your question in your question itself, if there were a fight there, would be some death too" .Omar,the jihad does not know the difference between Islam and the Jihad,But Wisam explains it clearly.Muslims shed tears,jihads shed blood.Muslims take not violence as their weapon at any cost.

3) It's unfortunate that terrorist are Muslims ,and they strongly believe in God.They believe,they kill people for the betterment of Islam.Omar and his men pray before any killings or bombings.In the end, Abassi,the Nigerian prays to god before the sets the bomb,Omar and Salim pray before the detonation too.So does Wisam; when a FBI officer (Israeli) asks Tom,what is Wisam doing? he says "he is praying for you".Israeli asks "God Vadim"? Tom replies "Exactly, except it is in Arabic version" So Wisam, the Muslim prays for that Israeli too.These three guys pray to the same god,but their prayers differ.Director portrays the difference between the real Muslim and a terrorists who use Islamism as a blanket.Also one can connect Israeli and Palestinian wars when Tom answers Israeli's question.

4) I believe there's a scene in this film where a Muslims shaves all his hair from the body.I happened to notice,many didn't understand,why does he shave all over his body.It's an Islamic tradition to cut nails,remove all pubic hairs from the corpse.According to the Islams one's gotta be clean before he enters heaven.He knows he's gonna die,when he detonate the bomb; he does not have any one to do the spiritual activities,so he removes all his pubic hair by himself.Jihads believe,if they kill Tom,dick,and Harry,they shall go to heaven.So they're prepared for all the things.Even Wiz (kamal) shaves his pubic hair (After the interval scene),because he knows he may die saving the New York people.So in order to go to heaven,he shaves his pubic hair.Both the Abassi and Wiz do shave their hairs,but for the different reason.One of the greatest directorial touches.

5) In the public hanging scene, which according to jihads is justice done to a sinner. Almost everyone wears a white Taqiyya (worldly called as Muslim caps) or imama in Arabic. except for Wisam,who wears Black taqiyya; Black signifies sadness,but however it signifies evil,according to Koran and Bible. One can relate what director is trying prove by wearing the black cap at the so called justice done to the sinner.They don't give justice to sinner,instead they're doing the sin (Evil activities) in the name of justice.

6) The little boy is ambitious about becoming a doctor,but Omar restricts him to be a Jihad as his brother Mammu; Wisam (Kamal) swings the little boy on the swing board,but the boy says "I am not a child" and walks away from the swing,but his elder brother asks Wisam to push the swing,and he enjoys the swing by closing his eyes against light,though the light falls on him,he ignores to accept it by closing his eyes. Proving the difference between a matured little boy,and immature grown up brother.Reason is obvious...

7) Pigeons roam beside the mosque or tomb in the film.When Omar walks beside the mosque he walks against those pigeon, symbolizing that Jihads hate peace,and hence they kick pigeons with their foot.Since,pigeon is a metonymy for peace.

8) During the Public Hanging scene,there are lots of people observing the death of Nasir.During the hanging,Omar eats something and feeds a Pigeon (It symbolizes Omar's feeding his thoughts to good Muslims).Omar sits beside 2 pigeons on his right side with a Gun,and on left side Nasir's mom cries out of depression and curses Omar and his men,Omar had the option to choose between Peace (Pigeons) and War (Gun),but still he chose to pick up the gun..

9) The scene where sheik is introduced to wisam,one could notice the red roses behind them,and when a jihads car come near by the roses seem to be very red,but when the cars passed the rose,it became dark since there ain't any light to see the light up the red color of the roses,logically and scientifically the scene is justified,but what the director has tried to portray his,anything may turn dark when a jihad passes by.Good Muslims may turn dark/evil when they come across a jihad.

10) When Deepak questions Wisam about his religious faith, his wife says "Avar ADHU dhan" it's quite obvious that she ain't comfortable with the name of the religion and hence addresses as ADHU rather dhan Islam. She had hated Vishwa,even before she didn't know he is a Muslim,but she starts to love him when she knew he is a Muslim.The scene when Kamal walks down the stairs with black leather jacket, Nirupama admires him,and so the pleasant BGM goes instead of Thunderous mass BGM which most of us would have expected when Kamal walks down. She hated him when he was a Brahmin and now he is a Muslim and she loves him.I guess director Kamal tries to prove Love > Religion

11) When the director introduces the detective Peter, Peter leans on an advertisement hoarding that says "Americas Most Favorite", explaining CIA and detective agencies of US which is being US's most favorite from Director's point of view.

12) In the news Obama says that Laden is killed praising America while below the news is "Petroleum hike by 3%" and on the right side "WORLD ALERT". Self-explainable. LOL

13) Some scenes show 2 sided statue is shown in the movie. One side being a man and another a woman. While the first song the statue is placed against a mirror, the camera shows the mirror and the statue. One can see both the faces of status in the same frame,

and again in the end once Kamal's boss says that he is the only live agent,and the status is shown both the sides. 2 sides of one statue and 2 sides of Wisam. Represents the role of Wisam in the movie as double agent.

14) At the last minute of the movie, director shows how Wisam enters the territory of Al Queada by landing/dropping from a helicopter. According to Islam half-moon ain't really related to the Koran,however some Muslims started using it as symbol of Islam.In fact Islam is against using such symbols;The crescent is mentioned in the Koran as the non-Muslims. Haj-Koran 2:189.However,some Muslims believe, crescent moon is coming of second son,and also representation of new day, as according to Islam and Jewish a new day does not start by sunrise,but at sunset. A crescent comes after sunset,while Kamal Hassan falls from the sky entering Al Queda territory a crescent moon is seen, so you can connect to the previous 2 sentences :) Symbolizing start of new day or start of new Muslim era in this Muslim hated world. As Wisam is an Indian Muslim Raw agent,and saves 1000's of lives in the movie,proving worth of Muslims to this world. If I were a Muslim,I would thank Kamal Hassan,and would not protest.

Finally film ain't an Anti-Muslim, its Pro Muslim :) This movie has been taken to prove ,good Muslims are overshadowed by many things,and most of the times are swept away with odd things around this world. I would say this movie as a tribute to Muslims.So has he proved through this movie? Well audience gotta understand the movie to answer this question.

According to me Viswaroopam's one of the greatest cinematic achievements,not only in the Indian cinema,but also in the world cinema.

While many films portray Muslims as a Somalian terrorists/Afghan terrorists etc.

This film has clearly explained the differences between a jihad and a Muslim.

The best Muslim friendly film ever made.

We're able to trace out only these much interesting things from the film,but think How much things Kamal sir would have buried in this film.

We gotta dig deeper,or in other words We gotta watch it for N number of times,to get all the details/things from the film.

Overall it's a tribute to peace loving Muslims

Viswaroopam - A celluloid poem !

Rating:3.5/5

Sunday, February 3, 2013

Wellness For You: Water bottles

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Software Humor - See where you stand

 

ENjoy!!

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THROUGH A RAPIST'S EYES

 

Disclaimers :This was shared in FB.Found useful tips against stalkers and rapist

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It seems that a lot of attackers use some tactic to get away with violence. Not many people know how to take care of themselves when faced with such a situation. Everyone should read this especially each and every girl in this world.

THOUGHT THIS WAS GOOD INFO TO PASS ALONG...

Through a rapist's eyes! A group of rapists and date rapists in prison were interviewed on what they look for in a potential victim and here are some interesting facts:

1] The first thing men look for in a potential victim is hairstyle. They are most likely to go after a woman with a ponytail, bun! , braid or other hairstyle that can easily be grabbed. They are also likely to go after a woman with  long hair. Women with short hair are not common targets.

2] The second thing men look for is clothing. They will look for women whose clothing is easy to remove quickly. Many of them carry scissors around to cut clothing.

3] They also look for women using their cell phone, searching through their purse or doing other activities while walking because they are off guard and can be easily overpowered.

4] The number one place women are abducted from / attacked at is grocery store parking lots.

5] Number two is office parking lots/garages.

6] Number three is public restrooms.

7] The thing about these men is that they are looking to grab a woman and quickly move her to a second location where they don't have to worry about getting caught.

8] If you put up any kind of a fight at all, they get discouraged because it only takes a minute or two for them to realize that going after you isn't worth it because it will be time-consuming.

9] These men said they would not pick on women who have umbrellas, or other similar objects that can be used from a distance, in their hands.

10] Keys are not a deterrent because you have to get really close to the attacker to use them as a weapon. So, the idea is to convince these guys you're not worth it.

POINTS THAT WE SHOULD REMEMBER:

1] If someone is following behind you on a street or in a garage or with you in an elevator or stairwell, look them in the face and ask them a question, like what time is it, or make general small

talk: can't believe it is so cold out here, we're in for a bad winter. Now that you've seen their faces and could identify them in a line- up, you lose appeal as a target.

2] If someone is coming toward you, hold out your hands in front of you and yell Stop or Stay back! Most of the rapists this man talked to said they'd leave a woman alone if she yelled or  showed that she would not be afraid to fight back. Again, they are looking for an EASY target.

3] If you carry pepper spray (this instructor was a huge advocate of it and carries it with him wherever he goes,) yelling I HAVE PEPPER SPRAY and holding it out will be a deterrent.

4] If someone grabs you, you can't beat them with strength but you can do it by outsmarting them. If you are grabbed around the waist from behind, pinch the attacker either under the arm between the elbow and armpit or in the upper inner thigh - HARD. One woman in a class this guy taught told him she used the underarm pinch on a guy who was trying to date rape her and was so upset she broke through the skin and tore out muscle strands the guy needed stitches. Try pinching yourself in those places as hard as you can stand it; it really hurts.

5] After the initial hit, always go for the groin. I know from a particularly unfortunate experience that if you slap a guy's parts it is extremely painful. You might think that you'll anger the guy and make him want to hurt you more, but the thing these rapists told our instructor is that they want a woman who will not cause him a lot of trouble. Start causing trouble, and he's out of there.

6] When the guy puts his hands up to you, grab his first two fingers and bend them back as far as possible with as much pressure pushing down on them as possible. The instructor did it to me without using much pressure, and I ended up on my knees and both knuckles cracked audibly.

7] Of course the things we always hear still apply. Always be aware of your surroundings, take someone with you if you can and if you see any odd behavior, don't dismiss it, and go with your instincts. You may feel little silly at the time, but you'd feel much worse if the guy really was trouble.

FINALLY, PLEASE REMEMBER THESE AS WELL....

I know you are smart enough to know these pointers but there will be some, where you will go "hmm I must remember that" After reading, forward it to someone you care about, never hurts to be careful in

this crazy world we live in.

1. Tip from Tae Kwon Do: The elbow is the strongest point on your body. If you are close enough to use it, do it.

2. Learned this from a tourist guide to New Orleans: if a robber asks for your wallet and/or purse, DO NOT HAND IT TO HIM. Toss it away from you.... chances are that he is more interested in your wallet and/or purse than you and he will go for the wallet/purse. RUN LIKE MAD IN THE OTHER DIRECTION!

3. If you are ever thrown into the trunk of a car: Kick out the back tail lights and stick your arm out the hole and start waving like crazy. The driver won't see you but everybody else will. This has saved lives.

4. Women have a tendency to get into their cars after shopping, eating, working, etc., and just sit (doing their checkbook, or making a list, etc. DON'T DO THIS! The predator will be watching you, and this is the perfect opportunity for him to get in on the passenger side, put a gun to your head, and tell you where to go. AS SOON AS YOU CLOSE the DOORS, LEAVE.

5. A few notes about getting into your car in a parking lot, or parking garage:

a. Be aware: look around your car as someone may be hiding at the passenger side, peek into your car, inside the passenger side floor, and in the back seat. (DO THIS TOO BEFORE RIDING A TAXI CAB).

b. If you! U are parked next to a big van, enter your car from the passenger door. Most serial killers attack their victims by pulling them into their vans while the women are attempting to get into their cars.

c. Look at the car parked on the driver's side of your vehicle, and the passenger side. If a male is sitting alone in the seat nearest your car, you may want to walk back into the mall, or work, and get a guard /policeman to walk you back out. IT IS ALWAYS BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY. (And better paranoid than dead.)

6. ALWAYS take the elevator instead of the stairs. (Stairwells are horrible places to be alone and the perfect crime spot).

7. If the predator has a gun and you are not under his control, ALWAYS RUN! The predator will only hit you (a running target) 4 in 100 times; and even then, it most likely WILL NOT be a vital organ. RUN!

8. As women, we are always trying to be sympathetic: STOP IT! It may get you raped, or killed. Ted Bundy, the serial killer, was a good-looking, well educated man, who ALWAYS played on the sympathies of unsuspecting women. He walked with a cane, or a limp, and often asked "for help" into his vehicle or with his vehicle, which is when he abducted his next victim.

Thiruvannamalai Girivalam

 

History

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Traditional stories tell us that there was an unsettled dispute between Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma as to who was superior. They sought the help of Lord Siva to judge

who was really superior; Lord Siva grew into a long flaming light stretching between earth and heaven, and asked them to find root and crown.

Brahma agreeing to reach the crown took the form a swan and flew, and flew to an extending height and could not reach the crown. In his upward flight he caught hold of a flower of Pandavas falling from Siva's crown and requested the flower to bear a false witness that he collected it from Siva's crown . Knowing this Lord Siva cursed Brahma that he would never be worshipped in the temple, and banished Pandavas flower from his adornment.

Lord Vishnu took the form of pig and kept digging down to reach Siva's foot; Siva was really pleased with the humility of Vishnu and took him his heart.

Where is Thiruvannamali ?

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Tiruvannamalai (called Trinomali during British times) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The townthat covers an area of 16.33 km2 (6.31 sq mi) Roadways are the major mode of transport in Tiruvannamalai, while the town also has rail connectivity. Chennai International Airport is the nearest domestic and international airport to the town

When DO I go for Girivalam?

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Every full moon, tens of thousands of pilgrims worship Annamalaiyar by circumambulating the Annamalai hill barefoot. The circumambulation covers a distance of 14 kilometres (8.7 mi), and is referred as Girivalam

2013 Calendar

 

January   8 January 2012 - Sunday     1.19 pm (8-1-12) to 1.41 pm (9-1-12)
February 7 February 2012 - Tuesday   4.59 am (7-2-12) to 4.18 am (8-2-12)
March 7 March 2012 - Wednesday 5.52 pm (7-3-12) to 3.09 pm (8-3-12)
April 6 April 2012 - Friday  4.20 am (6-4-12) to 12.48 am (7-4-12)
May 5 May 2012 - Saturday 12.53 pm (5-5-12) to 9.05 am (6-5-12)
June 3 June 2012 - Sunday 8.17 pm (3-6-12) to 4.41 pm (4-6-12)
July 3 July 2012 - Tuesday 3.21 am (3-7-12) to 12.21 am (4-7-12)
August 1 August 2012 - Wednesday

31 August 2012 - Friday
10.58 am (1-8-12) to 8.57 am (2-8-12)

10.07 pm (31-8-12) to 9.07 pm (1-9-12)
September 29 September 2012 - Saturday 8.03 am (29-9-12) to 8.48 am (30-9-12)
October 29 October 2012 - Monday 11.17 pm (28-10-12) to 1.19 am (30-10-12)
November 27 November 2012 - Tuesday 5.34 pm (27-11-12) to 8.15 pm (28-11-12)
December 27 December 2012 - Thursday 1.26 pm (27-12-12) to 3.51 pm (28-12-12)

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