Sunday, December 25, 2011

How Google Works!!

Google runs on a distributed network of thousands of low-cost computers and can therefore carry out fast parallel processing. Parallel processing is a method of computation in which many calculations can be performed simultaneously, significantly speeding up data processing. Google has three distinct parts:
Googlebot, a web crawler that finds and fetches web pages.
The indexer that sorts every word on every page and stores the resulting index of words in a huge database.
The query processor, which compares your search query to the index and recommends the documents that it considers most relevant.

Let’s take a closer look at each part.

1. Googlebot, Google’s Web Crawler

Googlebot is Google’s web crawling robot, which finds and retrieves pages on the web and hands them off to the Google indexer. It’s easy to imagine Googlebot as a little spider scurrying across the strands of cyberspace, but in reality Googlebot doesn’t traverse the web at all. It functions much like your web browser, by sending a request to a web server for a web page, downloading the entire page, then handing it off to Google’s indexer.

Googlebot consists of many computers requesting and fetching pages much more quickly than you can with your web browser. In fact, Googlebot can request thousands of different pages simultaneously. To avoid overwhelming web servers, or crowding out requests from human users, Googlebot deliberately makes requests of each individual web server more slowly than it’s capable of doing.

Googlebot finds pages in two ways: through an add URL form, www.google.com/addurl.html, and through finding links by crawling the web.
unfortunately, spammers figured out how to create automated bots that bombarded the add URL form with millions of URLs pointing to commercial propaganda. Google rejects those URLs submitted through its Add URL form that it suspects are trying to deceive users by employing tactics such as including hidden text or links on a page, stuffing a page with irrelevant words, cloaking (aka bait and switch), using sneaky redirects, creating doorways, domains, or sub-domains with substantially similar content, sending automated queries to Google, and linking to bad neighbors. So now the Add URL form also has a test: it displays some squiggly letters designed to fool automated “letter-guessers”; it asks you to enter the letters you see — something like an eye-chart test to stop spambots.

When Googlebot fetches a page, it culls all the links appearing on the page and adds them to a queue for subsequent crawling. Googlebot tends to encounter little spam because most web authors link only to what they believe are high-quality pages. By harvesting links from every page it encounters, Googlebot can quickly build a list of links that can cover broad reaches of the web. This technique, known as deep crawling, also allows Googlebot to probe deep within individual sites. Because of their massive scale, deep crawls can reach almost every page in the web. Because the web is vast, this can take some time, so some pages may be crawled only once a month.

Although its function is simple, Googlebot must be programmed to handle several challenges. First, since Googlebot sends out simultaneous requests for thousands of pages, the queue of “visit soon” URLs must be constantly examined and compared with URLs already in Google’s index. Duplicates in the queue must be eliminated to prevent Googlebot from fetching the same page again. Googlebot must determine how often to revisit a page. On the one hand, it’s a waste of resources to re-index an unchanged page. On the other hand, Google wants to re-index changed pages to deliver up-to-date results.

To keep the index current, Google continuously recrawls popular frequently changing web pages at a rate roughly proportional to how often the pages change. Such crawls keep an index current and are known as fresh crawls. Newspaper pages are downloaded daily, pages with stock quotes are downloaded much more frequently. Of course, fresh crawls return fewer pages than the deep crawl. The combination of the two types of crawls allows Google to both make efficient use of its resources and keep its index reasonably current.

2. Google’s Indexer

Googlebot gives the indexer the full text of the pages it finds. These pages are stored in Google’s index database. This index is sorted alphabetically by search term, with each index entry storing a list of documents in which the term appears and the location within the text where it occurs. This data structure allows rapid access to documents that contain user query terms.

To improve search performance, Google ignores (doesn’t index) common words called stop words (such as the, is, on, or, of, how, why, as well as certain single digits and single letters). Stop words are so common that they do little to narrow a search, and therefore they can safely be discarded. The indexer also ignores some punctuation and multiple spaces, as well as converting all letters to lowercase, to improve Google’s performance.

3. Google’s Query Processor

The query processor has several parts, including the user interface (search box), the “engine” that evaluates queries and matches them to relevant documents, and the results formatter.

PageRank is Google’s system for ranking web pages. A page with a higher PageRank is deemed more important and is more likely to be listed above a page with a lower PageRank.

Google considers over a hundred factors in computing a PageRank and determining which documents are most relevant to a query, including the popularity of the page, the position and size of the search terms within the page, and the proximity of the search terms to one another on the page. A patent application discusses other factors that Google considers when ranking a page. Visit SEOmoz.org’s report for an interpretation of the concepts and the practical applications contained in Google’s patent application.

Google also applies machine-learning techniques to improve its performance automatically by learning relationships and associations within the stored data. For example, the spelling-correcting system uses such techniques to figure out likely alternative spellings. Google closely guards the formulas it uses to calculate relevance; they’re tweaked to improve quality and performance, and to outwit the latest devious techniques used by spammers.

Indexing the full text of the web allows Google to go beyond simply matching single search terms. Google gives more priority to pages that have search terms near each other and in the same order as the query. Google can also match multi-word phrases and sentences. Since Google indexes HTML code in addition to the text on the page, users can restrict searches on the basis of where query words appear, e.g., in the title, in the URL, in the body, and in links to the page, options offered by Google’s Advanced Search Form and Using Search Operators (Advanced Operators).

Source:Google Guide(Learn More)


World's Smallest Hotel in Amberg

"World's Smallest Hotel" now 5-Star Rated
Couples who spend their wedding night at the tiny Eh'haeusl in Amberg will live happily ever after and never get divorced — at least according to an old legend told by the locals of this medieval town in Bavaria.



Now newlyweds who want to test the legend can do so in luxury. The 282-year-old Eh'haeusl — a Bavarian expression for "marriage house" — was recently renovated and turned into a five-star hotel. It's so tiny that the entire building can only be rented out by one couple at a time, and its owners claim it's the smallest hotel in the world.



The red building on Seminarian in the town's historical old city is only 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) wide, and stretches over seven narrow floors.



The house was originally built in 1728, after the city council ruled that couples could only get married if they owned property.To give lovebirds a chance to tie the knot even if they did not own a home, a resourceful Amberg citizen came up with an idea of skirting the new law.

He built a house so tiny and inexpensive, that even poor people could afford it — at least on a short-term basis. They would buy the house, get married, move in and then sell it soon after to the next marriage-minded couple.




With a different newlywed couple as occupants every few weeks, it became known as the "wedding house."

Even today, many couples spend their wedding night at the Eh'haeusl, which costs €240 ($327) per night and includes a whirlpool and an open fireplace.

After a recent overnight stay, Barbara and Heinz Wilhelm, a couple in their early 70s, said even though their honeymoon was long ago, the experience was one-of-a-kind.


World Shortest Girl Jyoti Amge

World Shortest Girl Jyoti Amge From Nagpur , Maharashtra. On 18th Birthday she will be Shortest Women In World.
Jyoti was recognized by The Guinness Book and Limka Book Of Records as Worlds Shortest Girl. She Celebrates her 18th birthday on 16th December 2011 and become World Most Shortest Women










Saturday, December 17, 2011

The Tsar Bomba-King Of Bombs


On October 30, 1961, the most powerful weapon ever constructed by mankind was exploded over the island of Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Sea. The device was code-named “Ivan,” and it was a multi-stage hydrogen bomb which was built in only fifteen weeks by engineers in the USSR, using off-the-shelf nuclear weapon components.



It was intended as a display of Soviet superiority during a period of grave tension between the USSR and the United States. The Russians had erected the Berlin wall only two months earlier, and they had just ended a shaky, three-year moratorium on atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Before Ivan, the largest explosion the world had seen was an incredible 15 megatons, an event which caused a mushroom cloud five kilometers across. Ivan’s explosion was over three times more powerful, despite the fact that the device was deliberately prevented from operating to its full potential.



The completed weapon weighed 27 metric tons, and though it was technically “aircraft-deliverable,” it was too large to fit inside the bomb bay of the largest soviet bomber of that era, the Tu-95. Consequently, a Tu-95 was specially modified for the task, including the removal of the bomb bay doors to allow the bomb to protrude from the plane, and a coating of a special reflective paint to minimize the heat damage it would sustain from the fireball. Ivan was also attached to a parachute to prevent it from descending too rapidly, thereby giving the bomber adequate time to get out of range of the blast.




Because the project had been rushed, much of the mathematical analysis was skipped, and estimations were used instead. This led to uncertainties about the system performance, and last-minute design modifications. Doubts and uncertainties notwithstanding, on October 30, 1961 the Tu-95 dropped Ivan from an altitude of 34,500 feet over the Mityushikha Bay Nuclear Testing Range at Novaya Zemlya. The weapon’s on-board barometric sensors detonated the bomb at approximately 13,000 feet at 11:32am.

Despite the cloudy weather, the flash of light was visible as far as 1,000 kilometers distant, though the sound of the blast would not reach that far for forty-nine minutes, in the form of an indistinct, heavy blow. The giant fireball reached from ground-level to about 34,000 feet into the air, violently releasing 3800 times more explosive energy than the Hiroshima bomb– equivalent to fifty million metric tons of TNT. One hundred kilometers from ground zero the heat would have inflicted third degree burns. Atmospheric focusing produced areas of destruction hundreds of kilometers from ground zero, including wooden structures which were completely destroyed, and some shattered windows in Finland. The explosion’s atmospheric shockwave traveled around the Earth three times before it dissipated.

The mushroom cloud which followed the blast was enormous in scale. It stretched sixty kilometers into the sky, and had a diameter of about forty kilometers. Ionization from the explosion disrupted radio communications for the better part of an hour.

Some time after the explosion, a team was dispatched to ground zero to take photographs. One witness reported: “The ground surface of the island has been levelled, swept and licked so that it looks like a skating rink. The same goes for rocks. The snow has melted and their sides and edges are shiny. There is not a trace of unevenness in the ground… Everything in this area has been swept clean, scoured, melted and blown away.” Analysis of the explosion showed that the area of complete destruction had a radius of twenty-five kilometers from ground zero.

Naturally, the United States was outraged, and responded by rattling its nuclear sabre in return. The U.S. soon followed suit with an extensive series of nuclear weapons tests.

Ivan– sometimes referred to as “Tsar Bomba” or “King of Bombs”– was originally designed to yield a 100 megaton explosion, but the soviets decided that such a blast would create too great a risk of nuclear fallout, and an almost certain chance that the release plane would be unable to reach safety before detonation. Prior to testing, the engineers replaced a portion of the radioactive uranium with a lead tamper, cutting its explosive potential in half, to a “mere” 50 megatons. Later analysis showed that the fallout from a 100 megaton detonation would have resulted in lethal levels of radioactive fallout over an enormous area.

Even at half strength, Ivan was so powerful that it was completely impractical. Much of the explosion’s energy radiated upwards into space, and that which didn’t was so excessive that using the device on any populated targets world would have resulted in adverse effects on Russian interests. It served as nothing more than a show of force, and in that respect, it served its purpose well. Thankfully, no other weapon with the massive destructive power of Tsar Bomba has ever been built.

Monday, December 12, 2011

Why our country's denominations must be less


Money as a means of payment, consists of coins, paper money and withdrawable bank deposits. Today, credit cards and electronic cash form an important component of the payment system. For a common person though, money simply means currency and coins. This is so because in India, the payment system, especially for retail transactions still revolves around currency and coins. There is very little, however, that the common person knows about currency and coins he handles on a daily basis.


What are the present denominations of bank notes in India?
At present, notes in India are issued in the denomination of Rs.5, Rs.10, Rs.20, Rs.50, Rs.100, Rs.500 and Rs.1000. These notes are called bank notes as they are issued by the Reserve Bank of India (Reserve Bank). The printing of notes in the denominations of Re.1 and Rs.2 has been discontinued as these denominations have been coinised. However, such notes issued earlier are still in circulation. The printing of notes in the denomination of Rs.5 had also been discontinued; however, it has been decided to reintroduce these notes so as to meet the gap between the demand and supply of coins in this denomination.


What are the present available denominations of coins in India?
Coins in India are available in denominations of 10 paise, 20 paise, 25 paise, 50 paise, one rupee, two rupees and five rupees. Coins up to 50 paise are called 'small coins' and coins of Rupee one and above are called 'Rupee Coins'.

Can bank notes and coins be issued only in these denominations?
Not necessarily. The Reserve Bank can also issue notes in the denominations of one thousand rupees, five thousand rupees and ten thousand rupees, or any other denomination that the Central Government may specify. There cannot, though, be notes in denominations higher than ten thousand rupees in terms of the current provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Coins can be issued up to the denomination of Rs.1000.

So,what is the point this must be the question in everyone's mind and how does the increase in denominations of a countries currency can have impact on the countries encomic, well what does it mean indirectly

1.Well we are marching towards Hyperinflation While the real values of the specific economic items generally stay the same in terms of relatively stable foreign currencies, in hyperinflationary conditions the general price level within a specific economy increases rapidly as the functional or internal currency, as opposed to a foreign currency, loses its real value very quickly, normally at an accelerating rate

2.To move out our country's money into Foreign Banks makes (the illegal people in countries Easy) when the denominations is High

3.Increase in Black Money and fake currency.

4.Excessive borrowing of money from World banking

So whats the remedy for this unknows problem?
Well, its quite simple just decrease the denomiations of currency to Rs.5, Rs.10, Rs.20, Rs.50, Rs.100 can curb little of these above mentioned issues.And the countries like USA does the same.

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Largest American denomination (1929)


The base currency of the United States is the U.S. dollar, and is printed on bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100.

At one time, however, it also included five larger denominations. High-denomination currency was prevalent from the very beginning of U.S. Government issue (1861). $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 interest bearing notes were issued in 1861, and $5,000 and $10,000 United States Notes were released in 1878. There are many different designs and types of high-denomination notes.

The high-denomination bills were issued in a small size in 1929, along with the $1 through $100 denominations. The designs were as follows:
$500: William McKinley
$1,000: Grover Cleveland
$5,000: James Madison
$10,000: Salmon P. Chase
$100,000: Woodrow Wilson























Image source:Wikipedia

Monday, December 5, 2011

Once in a Blue Moon!!

A blue moon can refer to the third full moon in a season with four full moons. Most years have twelve full moons that occur approximately monthly. In addition to those twelve full lunar cycles, each solar calendar year contains roughly eleven days more than the lunar year of 12 lunations. The extra days accumulate, so every two or three years (7 times in the 19-year Metonic cycle), there is an extra full moon. Lunisolar calendars have rules about when to insert such an intercalary or embolismic ("leap") month, and what name it is given; e.g. in the Hebrew calendar the month Adar is duplicated. The term "blue moon" comes from folklore. Different traditions and conventions place the extra "blue" full moon at different times in the year.
In calculating the dates for Lent and Easter, the Clergy identify the Lent Moon. It is thought that historically when the moon's timing was too early, they named an earlier moon as a "betrayer moon" (belewe moon), thus the Lent moon came at its expected time.



Folklore gave each moon a name according to its time of year. A moon that came too early had no folk name, and was called a blue moon, retaining the correct seasonal timings for future moons.
The Farmers' Almanac defined blue moon as an extra full moon that occurred in a season; one season was normally three full moons. If a season had four full moons, then the third full moon was named a blue moon.

A "blue moon" is also used colloquially to mean "a rare event", reflected in the phrase "once in a blue moon".




Here's a Blue Moon Calendar
1950-1999 | 2000-2050

--------------------+--------------------
May 31, 1950 | November 30, 2001
December 31, 1952 | July 31, 2004
October 31, 1955 | June 30, 2007
July 30, 1958 | December 31, 2009
January 31, 1961* | August 31, 2012<--- next
April 30, 1961* | July 31, 2015
November 30, 1963 | January 31, 2018*
August 31, 1966 | March 31, 2018*
May 31, 1969 | October 31, 2020
December 31, 1971 | August 31, 2023
October 31, 1974 | May 31, 2026
July 30, 1977 | December 31, 2028
March 31, 1980 | September 30, 2031
December 30, 1982 | July 31, 2034
July 31, 1985 | January 31, 2037*
May 31, 1988 | March 31, 2037*
December 31, 1990 | October 31, 2039
September 30, 1993 | August 31, 2042
July 30, 1996 | May 30, 2045
January 31, 1999* | January 31, 2048
March 31, 1999* | September 30, 2050

Indian Cinema mourns Dev Anand's death‎

Dharam Dev Anand 26 September 1923 – 3December 2011), better known as Dev Anand, was an Indian film actor, writer, director and producer known for his work in Hindi cinema. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2002 for his contribution to Indian cinema. His career spanned more than 65 years and acted in 114 Hindi films of which 110 have him play the main lead hero. He is popular for his stylisg Hats and scarf around his neck,popularly known as Every Green Dev Anand. Dev Anand died at around 10:00 PM (GMT) on 3 December 2011 in London (3:30 AM IST on 4 December 2011 in India), of a cardiac arrest.






Awards, honors and recognitions

Civilian Honors
2001 – Padma Bhushan (India's third highest civilian award from the Government of India)



National Film Awards
2002 – Dadasaheb Phalke Award, India's highest award for cinematic excellence

Filmfare Awards
1958 - Winner Best Actor for Kalapani
1966 - Winner Best Film for Guide
1991 - Winner Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award

National honors and recognitions
1996 – Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award
1997 – Mumbai Academy of Moving Images Award for his Outstanding Services to the Indian Film Industry
1998 – Lifetime Achievement Award by the Ujala Anandlok Film Awards Committee in Calcutta




1999 – Sansui Lifetime Achievement Award for his 'Immense Contribution to Indian Cinema' in New Delhi
2000 – Film Goers' Mega Movie Maestro of the Millennium Award in Mumbai
2001 – Special Screen Award for his contribution to Indian cinema
2001 – Evergreen Star of the Millennium Award at the Zee Gold Bollywood Awards
2003 – Lifetime Achievement Award for "Outstanding Achievement in Indian Cinema" at IIFA Award in Johannesburg, South Africa
2004 – Legend of Indian Cinema Award at Atlantic City (United States)
2004 – Living Legend Award by the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in recognition of his contribution to the Indian entertainment industry[45]
2005 – Sony Golden Glory Award
2006 – ANR Award by the Akkineni International Foundation
2006 – Glory of India Award by IIAF, London[48]
2007 – Punjab Ratan (Jewel of Punjab) Award by the World Punjabi Organisation (European Division) for his outstanding contribution in the field of art and entertainment.[49]
2008 – Lifetime Achievement Award by Ramya Cultural Academy in association with Vinmusiclub[50]
2008 – Lifetime Achievement Award by Rotary Club of Bombay[51]
2008 – Awarded at the IIJS Solitaire Awards[52]
2009 – Outstanding contribution to Indian cinema at the Max Stardust Awards[53]
2009 – Legend Award was given to Dev Anand by Rajnikanth[54]
2010 – Phalke Ratna Award by Dadasaheb Phalke Academy[55]
2010 – Rashtriya Gaurav Award[56]
2011 – Rashtriya Kishore Kumar Samman from the Government of Madhya Pradesh[57]
2011 – NDTV Indian of the Year's Lifetime Achievement Award with Rahul Dravid[58]

Saturday, December 3, 2011

Poorly maintained memorial of Emperor Raja Raja Chola

Raja Raja Chola I(985 AD-1014 AD)  born Arunmozhi Varman (also called as Raja Kesari Varman Raja Raja Devar and respectfully as Peruvudaiyar), popularly known as Raja Raja the Great, is one of the greatest emperors of the Tamil Chola Empire of India who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. He established the Chola Empire by conquering the kingdoms of southern India expanding the Chola Empire as far as Sri Lanka in the south, and Kalinga (Orissa) in the northeast. He fought many battles with the Chalukyas in the north and the Pandyas in the south. By conquering Vengi, Rajaraja laid the foundations for the Later Chola dynasty. He invaded Sri Lanka and started a century-long Chola occupation of the island. He streamlined the administrative system with the division of the country into various districts and by standardizing revenue collection through systematic land surveys. Being an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva, he built the magnificent Peruvudaiyar Temple (also known as the Brihadeeswarar Temple) in Thanjavur and through it enabled wealth distribution amongst his subjects. His successes enabled his son Rajendra Chola I to extend the empire even further.

Statue of Raja Raja Chola outside Brihadeeswarar Temple
 An emperor who has history for this kind and still remembered by the Tamil people has a very sad story in end of his life, the burial ground where the Raja Raja Chola was buried was a Siva temple in Udayalur, Kumbakonam(Tanjore district)  and this burial ground(Memorial) of this great king who had built hundreds of temple doesn’t even has a proper shelter for this place where he was buried.

The banner displaying the information about the Emperor
Banner displaying the location of the Siva Temple

The place which was believed that Raja Raja Cholan was buried under this Siva Lignam 
Caretaker of the Siva Temple

Location Of Siva Temple

Documentary On Raja Raja Chola


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