Saturday, November 13, 2010

2nd Biggest Electrical Power Plant on Earth is in Brazil/Paraguay

At the bottom of the 196 m tall dam , the white tubes are containing the inlets for the 18 turbines (715 MW each). On top of the 7.6 km dam, a 12 800 000 m³ of concrete was used for the project ITAIPU. The lake created by ITAPU dam. Its area reaches 1 350 km2, its length 170 km and its average width 7 km. Inside the ITAIPU Powerhouse
Dimensions: length: 986 m, maximum height: 112 m and width: 99m.
The red line on the floor indicates the border of Brazil and Paraguay .

The control center of the 18 generators Left half of it (in Brazil ) controls the 60 Hz units, right half (in Paraguay ) controls the 50 Hz units. A 18 kV to 525 kV transformator for 825 MVA
To increase the voltage of the generators, transformers with a capacity of 825 MVA and 768 MVA(for 50 and 60 Hz respectively) were specified.

Power switches for high voltages
Power switches at the "Left Bank Substation" (FURNAS). The AC-DC rectifier
The FURNAS rectifier substation is accomplished by four lines of of 500 kV.
Output DC voltages are symmetrical ± 500 000 Volt SC.

 Electricity (AC) leaving ITAPU to Sao Paulo
6 300 MW of electrical power generated by the 60 Hz units is transported by an 891 km AC transmission system, formed by three lines of 750 kV.

"Peanuts"- a word often used from so called "economic experts" and representatives when it comes to Renewable Energies.
"Not sufficient", "unreliable", "not feasible", are common bias.

Total view of the ITAIPU power plant
Left part shows overflow (spillway), the power station is located in the middle.
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At the bottom of the 196 m tall dam
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On top of the 7.6 km dam
A 12 800 000 m³ of concrete was used for the project ITAIPU.
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The lake created by ITAPU dam
Its area reaches 1 350 km2, its length 170 km and its average width 7 km.

ITAIPU shows they are wrong! Having more power than 10 nuclear power stations it supplies the second largest city on the planet with zero-emission electricity since 1984, still being extended until 1991. 26% of the electrical power consumption of Brazil and 78% of Paraguay are supplied by ITAIPU.

Located at the Brazilian-Paraguaian border and not far from the Argentinian border, the first step of the initiation was already in 1966 when the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil and Paraguay signed a joint statement known as the "Act of Ygazu". By this a study and evaluation of the hydraulic resources of the Parana river (owned jointly by Brazil and Paraguay ) followed.

On April, 26, 1973, the two governments of the states signed a treaty "for the development of the hydroelectric resources of the Parana River " and founded "ITAIPU Binacional" (cooperation with the legal, administrative and financial capacities and technical responsibility to plan, set up and operate the plant) in May, 17, 1974.

The construction work started in 1975, reaching its peak in 1978 with 30 000 people at work. Monthly on-site concrete production reached 338 000 m³. In total, 15 times the mass of concrete used for the "Eurotunnel" was supplied. The height of the dam reaches 196 m, its length 7.76 km. The lake created by this is 170 km long and contains 29 billion tons of water.

Unit 1 started to operate in December 1983. Electrical grid connection to Paraguay was established in March 1984, Brazil was connected 5 months later. In March 1991 the last unit ( No.18) was put into operation.

The water intake of one single 715 MW Francis-turbine is 700 m³/s, its weighted efficiency is 93.8%.

Each year ITAPU generates 75 TWh of electricity and avoids 67.5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions - compared to coal power plants.
The final cost of ITAIPU amounts to US$ 20 billion, 50% of this value are direct investments and balance financial charges.

If whole area of the lake - at nominal level - would be covered by solar modules the power of the would be 135 000 MW p, which would produce 230 TWh a year. For the same yearly output as ITAIPU a solar PV-plant would cost US$ 132 billion